Supervised Machine Learning: |

In supervised learning computers are taught using labeled training data. Then use that information to make predictions. This type of machine learning relies on having labeled input data to guide the process effectively similar, to how a student learns with a teachers guidance. The core concept of learning involves offering input and output data to the machine learning system.

In supervised learning, the machines' training data serve as the supervisor, teaching them to accurately predict the output.

Providing accurate input and output data to the machine learning model is known as supervised learning. Finding a mapping function to connect the input variable (x) and the output variable (y) is the goal of a supervised learning algorithm.

Supervised learning has applications in the real world, such as spam filtering, fraud detection, image categorization, risk assessment, and more.

Let's say we have a dataset including a variety of forms, such as triangles, polygons, rectangles, and squares. We must now train the model for every shape as the first step.

The supplied shape will be designated as a square if it has four equal sides.

The shape will be identified as a triangle if it possesses three sides.

A shape is classified as hexagonal if it has six equal sides.

We test our model using the test set after training.

The model's job is to recognize the shape.

The computer has already been educated on a wide variety of shapes. When it encounters a new shape, it categorizes it based on several sides and forecasts the result.

### How Supervised Learning Works?

In supervised learning, labelled datasets are used to train models, allowing them to learn about all kinds of data. When training is finished, the model predicts the outcome by being tested using test data, which is a subset of the training set.### Types of supervised Machine learning Algorithms:

Supervised learning is divided into two types of algorithms:- Regression
- Classification

#### Regression

One kind of supervised learning called regression is used to forecast continuous values like stock prices, home prices, and customer attrition. A function that maps the input features to the output value is learned by regression algorithms.Typical regression algorithms consist of the following:

The Linear Regression

Decision Tree Regression

Random Forest Regression.

One kind of regression method used to forecast a continuous output value is called linear regression. It is among the most popular and straightforward supervised learning algorithms. Finding a linear relationship between the input features and the output value is the goal of the linear regression procedure. The weighted sum of the input information is used to forecast the output value.

One kind of classification technique used to forecast a binary output variable is called logistic regression. It is frequently utilized in machine learning applications, such spam filtering and fraud detection, where the output variable is either true or false. The goal of the logistic regression procedure is to determine whether the input features and the output variable have a linear relationship. A logistic function is then used to modify the output variable, yielding a probability value between 0 and 1.

The SVM algorithm generates a hyperplane to divide n-dimensional space into classes and determine the appropriate category for new data points. The extreme situations that contribute to the formation of the hyperplane are referred to as support vectors, thus the term Support Vector Machine.

A decision tree is a structure that resembles a tree that is used to simulate decisions and their outcomes. In the tree, every internal node denotes a choice, and every leaf node denotes a potential result. Complex interactions between input features and output variables can be modeled using decision trees.

Several decision trees combine to form random forests, which use this structure to generate predictions. A distinct subset of the input characteristics and data is used to train every tree in the forest. All of the forest's trees combine their projections to create the ultimate forecast.

Supervised learning can help address a wide range of problems, including:

#### Classification

Classification is a a kind of supervised learning that predicts categorical values such as whether a client will leave, whether an email is spam, or whether a medical imaging has a tumor. Classification algorithms train a function that converts input information into a probability distribution for the output classes.### Supervised Machine Learning Algorithm

Some common classification algorithms are: Linear RegressionOne kind of regression method used to forecast a continuous output value is called linear regression. It is among the most popular and straightforward supervised learning algorithms. Finding a linear relationship between the input features and the output value is the goal of the linear regression procedure. The weighted sum of the input information is used to forecast the output value.

#### Logistic Regression

One kind of classification technique used to forecast a binary output variable is called logistic regression. It is frequently utilized in machine learning applications, such spam filtering and fraud detection, where the output variable is either true or false. The goal of the logistic regression procedure is to determine whether the input features and the output variable have a linear relationship. A logistic function is then used to modify the output variable, yielding a probability value between 0 and 1.

#### Support Vector Machines

The SVM algorithm generates a hyperplane to divide n-dimensional space into classes and determine the appropriate category for new data points. The extreme situations that contribute to the formation of the hyperplane are referred to as support vectors, thus the term Support Vector Machine.

#### Decision Trees

A decision tree is a structure that resembles a tree that is used to simulate decisions and their outcomes. In the tree, every internal node denotes a choice, and every leaf node denotes a potential result. Complex interactions between input features and output variables can be modeled using decision trees.

#### Random Forests

Several decision trees combine to form random forests, which use this structure to generate predictions. A distinct subset of the input characteristics and data is used to train every tree in the forest. All of the forest's trees combine their projections to create the ultimate forecast.

### Applications of Supervised Learning

**Spam filtering:**Supervised learning algorithms can be trained to detect and classify spam emails based on their content, allowing consumers to avoid inappropriate messages.**Image classification:**Supervised learning can automatically categorize photographs into groups such as animals, objects, or scenes, making image search, content moderation, and image-based product recommendations more efficient.

**Medical diagnosis:**Supervised learning can help in medical diagnosis by analyzing patient data like as medical images, test results, and patient history to identify patterns that indicate specific diseases or disorders.

**Fraud detection:**Financial institutions can safeguard their clients and stop fraud by using supervised learning models to examine financial transactions and spot trends that point to fraudulent conduct.

**Natural language processing (NLP):**In NLP tasks such as sentiment analysis, machine translation, and text summarization, supervised learning is essential to allowing robots to comprehend and handle human language.

### Advantages of Supervised learning

- Data collection and data output from prior experiences are made possible via supervised learning.
- It makes it possible to map the outcome to a fresh sample or estimate it.
- Its functions include classification and regression.
- A wide range of functional computing issues can be resolved with the help of supervised machine learning.

### Disadvantages of supervised learning:

- Supervised learning models are unsuitable for difficult problems.
- If the test data and the training dataset are different, supervised learning is unable to predict the proper output.
- During training, computation took a lengthy time.
- In supervised learning, we must have proper knowledge of the classes of objects.